Unprecedented social progress has been recorded around the world in the past few decades, with significant drops in poverty levels. However, this progress has been uneven as social and economic inequalities persist, or are increasing, in many countries. Marginalized groups still face numerous obstacles that prevent their full and real participation in economic, social, cultural and political life. To assess the situation on the ground in the Arab region, the present report provides three case studies from Egypt (residents of cemeteries in Cairo), Tunisia (residents of Kasserine, Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid in the Midwest region) and Lebanon (residents of the Bab al-Tabbaneh in Tripoli). These areas have endured chronic marginalization and their inhabitants suffer from extreme exclusion, with Government and local authorities ignoring their development needs.